Tag Archives: Ancient Rome

Cicero’s end: why did he just ‘let go’?

HOW EMOTIONS CAN DECIDE THE COURSE OF HISTORICAL EVENTS

The inglorious end of Cicero had always been a stain in the pages of Roman political history. He met his end out in the Italian countryside (near modern-day Gaeta), slaughtered by Roman sword.  Marc Antony saw the return of the proscription as an opportunity to eliminate his most powerful enemy. In the end, he had Cicero’s hands cut off and nailed on the rostra (the speakers’ platform) at the Forum. A symbolic but utterly barbaric act. Such was the end of the last honest defender of the Roman Republic and her democratic principles.

Marcus Tullius Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero
Marcus Antonius
Marcus Antonius

Escape or surrender?

The tragic events of that winter of 43 BC have been discussed quite thoroughly over the centuries. But there’s one detail that is overlooked:

-Oddly enough, most scholars ignore the fact that Cicero had the option to escape but in the end he didn’t. He could actually have saved himself by resisting arrest. Still, it was his decision to stay, even though he was in the act of fleeing! He offered himself to be put to death. -Why?

This appears to have been a spur-of-the-moment decision… Cicero knew that Antony was coming after him and he planned his escape beforehand. So it’s easy to understand that his aim was to continue his political struggle, defending the Republic.

Arch of Septimus Severus
Part of the Roman Forum. On the right of the Arch of Septimus Severus, is where the Rostra was located.

Sadness and grief

What made him change his mind and decided to give up after he was tracked? The most obvious answer is that he felt (for different reasons) so disappointed that he decided to give up. His bad psychological state can only be explained if we take into account an -otherwise neglected detail of Roman history of the period: the unexpected death of Cicero’s daughter, Tullia. Just a year earlier, in the winter of 47–46 B.C.E. he went through a painful divorce with his wife, Terentia. He re-married but his new wife was pathologically jealous of Tullia, a reality that saddened Cicero even more. The loss of his daughter in the following summer, was an event too tragic for him to cope with.

He was so grief-stricken that he couldn’t find comfort in anything. His two most favorite things in the world- books and friends- failed to provide him with any consolation. He tried very hard. His friends were worried. They tried to help as best as they could. Cicero threw himself into a sea of philosophy and books. Yet, nothing could ease the pain in his heart. His childhood friend, Titus Pomponius Atticus, tried to comfort him the best he could by inviting Cicero to his estate that included a huge library. All was in vain. Cicero declared, “my sorrow defeats all consolation”.

Cicero - Palace of Justice, Rome
Cicero – Palace of Justice, Rome

A moment’s decision?

The loss of his only daughter, his dear Tulliola as he liked to call her, made him care less and less about all the other things that he was passionate in the past. It’s easy to understand why he decided to finally give up. His whole perception of life had changed. For him, it made no sense to resist being arrested and to survive. ‘What’s the point?’ he must have asked himself when Antony’s executioner found him. His life had little purpose now, that’s why he ordered his servants not to resist and he let himself to be put to death.

His life had recently lost all meaning. How do we know? Cicero himself tells us in one simple phrase. He wrote to Atticus: “I have lost the one thing that bound me to life”.

Maybe this explains everything.

G. Kokkos

The Olympian Gods

This month: let’s Meet The Gods !

ZEUSFather of Gods and Men, ruler of the universe. He was the supreme cultural embodiment of Graeco-Roman religious beliefs.  Symbols : thunderbolt, eagle, oak tree, lion, scepter, scales.

HERAHera was the queen of all the gods; also the goddess of marriage. She was Zeus’ sister but also his wife. Some symbols : the peacock, cuckoo, and cow

POSEIDONGod of the seas, water, storms, hurricanes, earthquakes and horses. He was moody, restless and powerful.. Symbols : the horse, bull, dolphin, and -of course- trident

DEMETERDemeter was super-important to humans as she was goddess of the harvest, fertility, agriculture, nature and the seasons. Symbols : the poppy, wheat, torch, cornucopia, and pig.

ARESGod of war and violence but also god of manly virtues. Favorite god  to the Spartans and the Romans, he was tall, good-looking, mean and self-centered. Symbols:  the boar, serpent, dog, vulture, spear, and shield.

GODS OF mt OLYMPUS
All Gods of mt.Olympus

ATHENAAthena was famous for representing wisdom, knowledge, reason, intelligent activity, literature, handicrafts, science, strategy and defense. Symbols: the owl, olive tree, aegis, snake, shield

APOLLOGod of light, the sun, prophecy, philosophy, truth, inspiration, poetry, music, arts, medicine, healing but also plague. Some symbols: the sun, lyre, swan, mouse, bow & arrows

ARTEMISGoddess of the hunt, the wilderness, virginity, the moon, archery and childbirth. She was both huntress and protectress of the living world. Some symbols: the moon, horse, deer, hound, she-bear, snake, cypress tree, bow & arrows

HERMESThe messenger of the gods. Also protector of commerce, patron of travelers (and thieves!) and god of eloquence and diplomacy. Symbols: the caduceus (staff entwined with two snakes), winged sandals and cap, stork, and tortoise (whose shell he used to invent the lyre)

APHRODITEGoddess of love, pleasure, passion, procreation, fertility, beauty and desire. She had a son named Eros (known as Cupid in Latin. Symbols: the dove, bird, apple, bee, swan, myrtle, and rose

HEPHAESTUS  – Master blacksmith and craftsman of the gods; god of the forge, craftsmanship, invention, fire and volcanoes Some symbols: fire, hammer & anvil, axe, donkey, tongs, quail

DIONYSUS (aka BACCHUS)God of wine. The youngest of the Olympians, he was patron god of the art of theater! He was also god of fertility, festivity, humor, ecstasy, madness and resurrection Symbols: the grapevine, ivy, cup, tiger, panther, leopard, dolphin, goat, and pinecone

HESTIA  – Hestia was a gentle goddess, with an important job of her own. She was the goddess of hearth , home, fire and of the right ordering of domesticity and the family. Some symbols: hearth, flame, fire, kettle, donkey, pig

HADES (aka PLUTO)Brother of Zeus and Poseidon, Hades ruled the Underworld, with which he was sometimes synonymous. Some symbols: a golden chariot (Helios being the previous owner), the three-headed guard dog, Cerberus.

Academy side
Demeter (detail at the Academy of Athens)
IMG_6093
Seat of a priestess (Theater of Dionysus, Athens)